Agglutination test ماهو

Agglutination Tests: Types, Principle, Uses • Microbe Onlin

  1. When the specific antibodies (agglutinins) bind to surface antigens of bacteria, virus, or any antigens immobilized in particulate matter (such as latex particle) and cause the formation of visible clumps, such test is called agglutination test. Agglutination test can be performed in: Surface of glass slides: Rapid reading is required because evaporation affects; Test tubes: More sensitive because of longer incubation; Reagents available commercially. Agglutination test can be performed for.
  2. Agglutination tests are often done on cards or in microtiter plates that allow multiple reactions to take place side by side using small volumes of reagents. Using antisera against certain proteins allows identification of serovars within species of bacteria
  3. What is Latex Agglutination Test. A latex agglutination test is a test performed in a clinical laboratory. It's basically a rection between an antigen and an antibody. When they react, a visible clumping appears. This clumping is called Agglutination
  4. Latex agglutination test is also known as the latex fixation test. Clinically this test is used for the identification and typing of many important microorganisms. In 1965, Singer and Plotz first introduced this test and was described as the Rheumatoid Factor Test, which is based on the latex agglutination
  5. Direct Agglutination Test refers to the assays in which the antigen directly agglutinates with the antibody. Indirect or passive agglutination involves coating of antigen on the surface of a carrier molecule (e.g. RBC, latex or bentonite), such that the antibody binds to the coated antigen and agglutination takes place on the surface of the carrier molecule

Agglutination Assays Microbiolog

Agglutination Reaction is used as a routine procedure to identify bacterial culture. It is used serological test. It also used to measures the level of certain therapeutic drugs, hormones, and plasma protein. ADVANTAGES OF AGGLUTINATION REACTION. Agglutination is a rapid test. It is easy to perform. Usually, requiring a few minutes. The degree of sensitivity is high What is agglutination? Agglutination is the visible expression of the aggregation of antigens and antibodies. Agglutination reactions apply to particulate test antigens that have been conjugated to a carrier. The carrier could be artificial (such as latex or charcoal particles) or biological (such as red blood cells) و مبدأ الاختبار هو إضافة الأنتيجينات (Reagent) بعد معاملتها صناعياً إلى الأجسام المضادة في مصل المريض مما سيسبب تراص أو تخثر (Agglutination) واضح بالعين المجردة

Megan Brashear, CVT, VTS (ECC), explains the reasoning and demonstrates the process of performing and interpreting a saline agglutination test to help diagno.. Agglutination reaction is a serological assay, which results in the clumping of reactants (antigens and antibodies) to form a large visible aggregated mass. It involves the mixing of large or particulate antigens with the antiserum containing antibodies over the solid matrices like glass side, microtitre plate or test tubes 1. Place 4 separate drops of 10 percent chicken red blood cells onto a glass slide or a white tile. 2. To each drop of blood, add one drop of the control and test samples as follows. Use separate tips, pipettes or a flamed loop to dispense each sample. 3. Mix by rotating the slide or tile for one minute

Brucella agglutination test is a serological test for brucellosis. Other serological test for brucellosis are Standard Agglutination test, 2 Marceptoethanol (2ME) Agglutination test, Coombs' test, Complement fixation , Radioimmunoassay, ELISA and Rose bengal test. Standard agglutination test is very useful because blood culture may not demonstrate. A)Qualitative agglutination tests Agglutination tests can be used in a qualitative manner to assay for the presence of an antigen or an antibody. The antibody is mixed with the particulate antigen and a positive test is indicated by the agglutination of the particulate antigen Tube Agglutination Test• Also known as the standard agglutination test or serum agglutination test (SAT)• Test serum is diluted in a series of tubes (doubling dilutions)• Constant defined amount of antigen is then added to each tube and tubes incubated for ~20h @37°C• Particular antigen clumps at the bottom of the test tube• Test is read at 50% agglutination• Quantitative• Confirmatory test for ELISA reactors• Example: Brucellosis screening , Widal Testing1/11/2013 Dr.T.V.

The latex agglutination test is a clinical method to detect certain antigens or antibodies in a variety of bodily fluids such as blood, saliva, urine or cerebrospinal fluid. The sample to be tested is sent to the lab and where it mixed with latex beads coated with a specific antigen or antibody Agglutination test use visible clumping of cell or cellular antigen by binding of antibody. The resulting clump or aggregate of cell is called agglutinate. Principle of precipitation test is similar to that of agglutination test but the only one difference is that the cellular antigen give agglutination reaction and soluble antigen give precipitation reaction التَّراصّ ( بالإنجليزية: Agglutination )‏ هو تكتل جُسَيمات حاملة لمستضِد بفعل أجسام مضادة نوعية. التراص الدموي ، شكل من أشكال التراص، هو الذي أدى إلى اكتشاف فصائل الدم . يحدث التراص في علم الأحياء في ثلاثة أمثلة رئيسية: تكتل خلايا الدم مع البكتيريا في وجود الأجسام المضادة agglutination test any test based on an agglutination reaction, as serologic tests for specific antibodies. Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc Agglutination of red blood cells is called hemagglutination. One common assay that uses hemagglutination is the direct Coombs' test, also called the direct antihuman globulin test (DAT), which generally looks for nonagglutinating antibodies. The test can also detect complement attached to red blood cells

Examples of agglutination tests using red blood cells as antigens are the Paul Bunnel test and the cold agglutination test. The cold agglutination test is positive in primary atypical pneumonia. The patient's sera agglutinate human O group erythrocytes at 4°C the agglutination being irreversible at 37°C The coomb [FONT='Arial','sans-serif']'[/FONT] s test involves red cells coated(sensitized) with in complete antibodies that fail to agglutinate red cell suspend in saline. Usually these antibodies are IgG and they agglutinate by anti globulin in anti globulin seru

Numerous serologic tests have been developed to detect antibodies to CEM in serum. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and passive hemagglutination tests are superior for detection of infected mares. 28 Antibodies can be detected within 40 days of infection. The tests are useful in identifying mares with active infections An agglutination test is a procedure requested by a doctor or other medical professional to detect a specific antibody or antigen present in a range bodily fluids (saliva, blood, urine and cerebrospinal fluid etc.). Major applications of agglutination testing involve the diagnosis of a pathogen or disease, serotyping a bacterial strain and ABO blood typing Hemagglutination Inhibition Test. Hemagglutination inhibition tests are simple, sensitive, inexpensive, and rapid and therefore are often the method of choice for assaying antibodies to influenza A virus. From: Equine Infectious Diseases (Second Edition), 2014. Download as PDF. About this page hemagglutination [he″mah-gloo″tĭ-na´shun] agglutination of erythrocytes. hemagglutination inhibition (HI, HAI) test 1. a highly sensitive procedure for the measurement of soluble antigens in biologic specimens; the amount of hemagglutination reflects the amount of free antibody present after reaction with the specimen and thus varies inversely.

Latex Agglutination Test: Procedure, Principle,Types

  1. Agglutination is the reaction between surface antigens of bacteria and antigen-specific antibodies. The agglutination reaction is a useful tool both in identifying bacterial isolates and diagnosing infection through the detection of bacterial-specific antibodies in samples
  2. Agglutination and precipitation reaction requires both the reactants, i.e. antigen and antibody to form an immunocomplex or lattice. Conclusion Therefore, precipitation and agglutination reactions are the serological assays, which requires both antigens and antibodies as the reacting particles
  3. e blood type? The blood will agglutinate if the antigens in the patient's blood match the antibodies in the test tube. A antibodies attach to A antigens - they match like a lock and key - and thus form a clump of red blood cells. These are also commonly referred to as anti A antibodies, anti B antibodies, and anti Rh antibodies
  4. Tube Agglutination Test. Also known as the standard agglutination test or serum agglutination test (SAT) Test serum is diluted in a series of tubes (doubling dilutions) Constant defined amount of antigen is then added to each tube and tubes incubated for ~20h @37°C. Particular antigen clumps at the bottom of the test tube. Test is read at 50%.

Serum Agglutination Test for Detecting O Antigen & Brucellosis Disease. Agglutination is known as the clumping of the particles. The word agglutination originates from the Latin word agglutinare, which means to glue to.. This is known to occur in biology among three main examples. The first example is the clumping of the cells like. Types of agglutination test: Direct agglutination: These reaction can be performed on the slide (rapid tests) or on the microtiter plates or tubes for antibody titration if required. It includes slide agglutination test, tube agglutination test, heterophile agglutination test and antiglobulin test Latex agglutination test basically a rection between an antigen and an antibody. When they react, a visible clumping appears. This clumping is called agglutination. This helps to diagnosing the including Hepatitis B, Meningitis and so on. Its protocol is really quick and it shows its results in 15 minutes to an hour Agglutination is the visible expression of the aggregation of antigens and antibodies. Agglutination reactions apply to particulate test antigens that have been conjugated to a carrier. The carrier could be artificial (such as latex or charcoal particles) or biological (such as red blood cells). These conjugated particles are reacted with. This test is performed for the diagnosis of an autoimmune disease known as Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). This disease affects synovial joints (like joints of hands, knees, and feet) with subcutaneous nodules. The prevalence rate is 1% (women are affected 3-5% more). There are evidence of RA (Rheumatoid Arthritis) disease in smoker people than non-smokers.Rheumatoid factor (RF) is circulating in.

A rapid latex agglutination test kit for the identification of the E. coli O157 serotype. So sensitive that it requires only one single colony. Uses proprietary antibodies that eliminate the possibility of cross-reactions with Escherichia hermanii and other sorbitol-negative Escherichia species Principles of Agglutination. Precipitation and agglutination are the visible expression of the aggregation of antigens and antibodies through the formation of a framework in which antigen particles or molecules alternate with antibody molecules ().Precipitation is the term for the aggregation of soluble test antigens. Precipitation is the combination of soluble antigen with soluble antibody to. Find your latex agglutination test kit easily amongst the 27 products from the leading brands (EKF, Eurolyser, Gold Standard Diagnostics,) on MedicalExpo, the medical equipment specialist for your professional purchases

ماهو اختبار كومبس المباشر ومتى يكون إيجابيا ؟. يستخدم اختبار كومبس المباشر للكشف عن وجود الأجسام المضادة Antibody التي تعتبر من أنواع المناعة المكتسبة وليست مناعة طبيعية (تظهر بعد التماس. The antibody titre of the test sample is its highest dilution that gives a visible agglutination. 80 µl corresponds to 1 in 20 dilution, 40 µl to 1 in 40, 20 µl to 1 in 80, 10 µl to 1 in 160 and 5 µl corresponds to 1 in 320 titre. Agglutinin titre greater than 1:80 is considered as significant infection and low titres indicate absence of. Hemagglutination inhibition test is widely used for the diagnosis of infection caused by orthomyxoviruses (influenza), paramyxoviruses (measles, mumps), mononucleosis, abroviruses-togaviruses (including rubella), flaviviruses, and bunyaviruses. The presence of virus in infected cell cultures can be detected by hemagglutination; the identity of.

Latex agglutination test - Procedure, Principle

The performance of a rapid particle agglutination test for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (Capillus HIV type 1 [HIV-1]/HIV-2) on hospital samples is compared with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The test had a sensitivity and specificity of 99 and 98.9%, respectively. In addition, the test w Everything You Should Know About Latex Agglutination Tests. 22 November 2018 Agglutination is the process that occurs when an antigen is mixed with its corresponding antibody called agglutinin and is commonly used in blood grouping.. Latex agglutination testing, also called latex fixation, is a diagnostic study that is widely used as a laboratory method to identify certain antibodies and antigens agglutination test after direct microscopic examination and routine bacteriological analysis immediately. The samples were stored at 4ºC and processed within 24 hrs and aliquot of samples were stored at -80ºC. (c) Latex agglutination test Pastorex® Rotavirus code 52200 (Biorad, France) Latex agglutination test kit was used. Al Direct agglutination tests use the body's serum, which is the part of the blood that contains antibodies. In a plate that contains many small wells, called microtiter plate , serum and large.

Groupes sanguins - YouTube

Slide agglutination test: It is a basic type of agglutinationreaction that is performed on a slide. Identification of bacterial types represents a classic example of a direct slide agglutination that is still used today. In this test, a suspension of bacteria is prepared and is added to a drop of standardized antiserum Agglutination tests are based on the presence of agglutinating antibodies in patient sera that can react with specific antigens to form visible clumps. In the agglutination tests, the antibody - antigen reaction can be either a direct or passive agglutination reaction. In direct agglutination tests the agglutinating antibodies directly react. but positive latex agglutination test result, would have received antibiotic treatment whether or not this test was performed. The eight children whohad a positive Gramstain but a negative latex agglutination test also received antibiotic treatment. Thusthe results ofthelatex agglutinationtest didnotinfluence whetherornotantibiotics wereprescribed

Latex Agglutination Test Immunology Microbe Note

The indirect agglutination test, on the other hand, can be used to detect the hormone known as Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (HCG), which one would find in both the blood and urine of those who are pregnant. This indirect agglutination test is a method wherein anti-HCG coated latex particles are allowed to react with the serum or urine of the. 3. In preliminary agglutination tests twenty-one out of thirty-one cultures from the patients and nine out of twenty-three 4. By reciprocal agglutination and absorption of agglutinin tests, six of these strains were demonstrated to be antigenicallyRECIPROCAL AGGLUTINATION AND ABSORPTION OF AGGLUTININ TESTS WITH FIFTY-FOUR STRAINS OF HEMOLYTIC STREPTOCOCCI ASSOCIATED WITH. Agglutination test definition, Types, Uses, Advantages, Disadvantages. Microbiology Note. 2020-06-29. Retrieved 2021-02-21. Conversely, agglutination can also be used to identify new bacteria or cells with a specific antigen by exposing them to serum When an agglutinin is added to a uniform suspension of particles, such as bacteria or blood, in a test tube (in vitro),.


What is Agglutination Reaction - Serology Tes

Background: The appropriate cutoff to define a positive point-of-care card agglutination (CA) test for dog erythrocyte antigen 1 (DEA 1) blood typing depends on whether the test can be used in the donor or recipient. Objectives: By screening for CA test positivity, we aimed to evaluate the best cutoff value for DEA 1 blood typing in canine blood donors using a receiver operator characteristic. The Latex Agglutination Test Kits market report defines the overall Latex Agglutination Test Kits market at various levels. The report talks about the various factors that are causing changes in the market. Various market profiles are also given in the market report. The historical market value for the year 2021 is defined along with the market. Select a test. Neonatal and Pediatrics Monospot ® Latex. Other Cryptococcal Antigen Latex Agglutination System (CALAS ®) CALAS ® Pronase. Latex agglutination is a rapid latex test technology with qualitative and semi-quantitative detection to help your core lab, hospital lab, reference lab, or physician's office lab run more efficiently Staphaurex™ Plus Latex Agglutination Test Thermo Scientific™. Identify staphylococci which possess clumping factor, protein A, and/or surface antigens, including those characteristic of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Methicillin Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) strains, using the Thermo Scientific™ Staphaurex. The test depends on what type of sample is needed. The sample is sent to a lab, where it is mixed with latex beads coated with a specific antibody or antigen. If the suspected substance is present, the latex beads will clump together (agglutinate). Latex agglutination results take about 15 minutes to an hour

Agglutination - definition, reactions and application

1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Public health consequences of a false-positive laboratory test result for Brucella-Florida, Georgia, and Michigan, 2005. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2008 June 6;57(22):603-605. 2. Welch RJ, Litwin CM: A comparison of Brucella IgG and IgM ELISA assays with agglutination methodology. J Clin Lab. World's Best PowerPoint Templates - CrystalGraphics offers more PowerPoint templates than anyone else in the world, with over 4 million to choose from. Winner of the Standing Ovation Award for Best PowerPoint Templates from Presentations Magazine. They'll give your presentations a professional, memorable appearance - the kind of sophisticated look that today's audiences expect Antibody, also specific for the target antigen, is bound to the strip in a thin (test) line Either antibody specific for the labelled antibody, or antigen, is bound at the control line Immuno-chromatography: Principle (2) If antigen is present, some labelled antibody will be trapped on the test line Excess-labelled antibody is trapped on the.

اختبار السالمونيلا (فيدال) Widal Tes

  1. The immunochemical test that involves the agglutination of an artificial carrier particle with the antigen bound to its surface and an antibody present in a specimen is referred to as: asked Jan 1, 2017 in Biology & Microbiology by StrangeMagic. a. double immunodiffusion
  2. ماهى ظاهرة البروزون prozone phenomenon تحدث فى تفاعلات الانتى بودى انتى جين رئكشن appears in antibody antigen reaction as in { serology test} وهى تعطى نتيجة سلبة خاطئة وتحدث نتيجة وجود نسبة علية جدا..
  3. g agglutinations. This can lead to the so-called immunological infertility. In addition, there are other possible causes of sperm agglutination: Very high.
  4. الهدف من تحليل البول فحص كل مركباته عبر فحص كيميائي مخبري بسيط، ويتم فحص : ألوان البول ودلالاتها ، الصفاء، التركيز، مستوى الحموضة، مستويات السكر والزلال، وجود خلايا تابعة لجهاز المناعة أو خلايا الدم الحمراء، وغيرها.
  5. Bacterial agglutination tests may be performed on a slide, in microtitre tray wells, in tubes or by using commercial alternatives. Tube agglutination tests are usually more sensitive than slide tests as they require a longer incubation period which allows more antigen and antibody to interact
  6. There is a kit available, called the jaundice foal agglutination test, that can be performed stallside (if you have a centrifuge). This test assesses for mare-foal incompatibility by testing for agglutination between mare colostrum or serum and foal blood. Colostrum or serum is serially diluted and mixed with foal blood in test tubes
  7. Agglutination is the clumping together of particles which forms non-dissolvable or what is called as insoluble aggregates. The common substances used in the PAT are latex particles, preserved blood cells from mammals or birds, colloidal particles, and gelatine beads. The different components used in the PAT are microscope slides or test cards.

How to Perform a Saline Agglutination Test - YouTub

Agglutination only occurred in those wells where the antibodies were too dilute to neutralize the virus. The highest concentration at which agglutination occurs is the titer of the antibodies in the patient's serum. In the case of this test, Sample A shows a titer of 128, and Sample C shows a titer of 64 Slide agglutination test: It is a basic type of agglutinationreaction that is performed on a slide. Identification of bacterial types represents a classic example of a direct slide agglutination that is still used today. In this test, a suspension of bacteria is prepared and is added to a drop of standardized antiserum

Latex agglutination method = This is rapid and convenient. Normal = Negative for IgG and IgM antibodies. IgG positive indicate previous exposure or current immunization. IgM positive indicate current or recent infection. HAI (Hemagglutination inhibition method) <1:8 = No immunity to infection. >1:20 = Immunity to rubella infection ter Horst R, Tefera T, Assefa G, Ebrahim AZ, Davidson RN, Ritmeijer K. Field evaluation of rK39 test and direct agglutination test for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in a population with high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus in Ethiopia. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009 Jun;80(6):929-34. pmid:19478251 . View Articl

I Agglutination passive : Sérodiagnostic de la syphilis I.1 Sérodiagnostic par la méthode RPR. Principe du test : Agglutination réalisée entre un Ac et un Ag normalement soluble, mais rendu particulaire par fixation sur un support figuré. Ce kit fait appel à des particules de charbons enduites d'un mélange d'antigènes lipidiques qui s ماهي مادة ال edta وبماذا تستخدم في التحاليل ؟ التحاليل المخبرية طب المختبرات التحاليل الطبية تم إضافة السؤال من قبل مهند السماره , طبيب مخبر , قطاع حكوم Agglutination is often used by your body's immune system to clump toxins or pathogens together. Once congregated, these invaders can easily be inactivated by cells in the immune system Note: The agglutination tests can be Qualitative agglutination test - agglutination test used to detect the presence of an antigen or an antibody. The antibody is mixed with the particulate antigen and a positive test is indicated by the agglutination of the particulate antigen. e.g. a patient's red blood cells mixe Direct agglutination reagent for pregnancy testing which comprises the use of suspensions of polystyrene latex particles sensitized with a globulin fraction of anti-serum to human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). When mixed with urine or blood serum samples containing HCG, this reagent agglutinates indicating a positive test for pregnancy

What is Agglutination Reaction? Definition, History, Steps

The test used to analyze the variation on the clumping ability of the antigen when it reacted with an antibody placed on the surface of latex particles is called latex agglutination test. The agglutination reaction may also be reversed, the use of systematic beads provide the advantages and consistency, uniformity, and stability Performance of commercial ELISA and agglutination test kits for the detection of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in serum and muscle fluid of swine infected with 100, 300, 500 or 1000 oocysts Agglutination tests can be used in a qualitative manner to assay for the presence of an antigen or an antibody. The antibody is mixed with the particulate antigen and a positive test is indicated by the agglutination of the particulate antigen. (Figure 7). For example, a patient's red blood cells can be mixed with antibody to a blood group. A positive test has occurred when agglutination and/or visible clumping of the Latex Reagent/specimen combination is observed within 20 seconds. When obvious latex agglutination is observed within this period, coagulase and/or protein A is present and the specimen is presumed to be S. aureus. In a positive reaction, a significantly rapid and.

10. Haemagglutination test - FA

An equipment known as Tube agglutination viewer is mainly used in all the advanced medical labs. It is used for blood typing, flocculation, and other agglutination tests. It comes with a magnifying mirror and an illuminating bulb that focuses on the test tube placed at an adjustable difference from the bulb. The under surface bottom of the test. Slide agglutination is a blood test used in cats to screen for immune disease, particularly immune mediated hemolytic anemia. This immune disease causes the immune system to attack and destroy red blood cells. The cells become fragile and break apart, resulting in profound anemia

HIV testing stock imageBlood cell indices - Blood typing - the ABO system

اختبار MPV يعطي الاختبار عدد الصفائح الدموية لكل ميكروليتر (mcL) من الدم ، والقياس هو عدد الصفائح الدموية للشخص الواحد في المتوسط لكل ميكروليتر ، تتراوح الصفيحات المثالية بين 150،000 و 400،000 لكل مولود في معظم الأشخاص الأصحاء. The test is a passive agglutination procedure based on the agglutination of gel particles sensitized with T. pallidum antigens by antibodies found in the patient's serum (1-3). The test is intended as a confirmatory test to replace the microhemagglutination assa Mast Group Ltd. provides a range of simple and rapid latex agglutination kits for Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcal grouping, Toxoplasma and Rheumatoid Factor.The kits utilise highly specific antibodies suitable for clinical and veterinary diagnostic use, all reagents within each kit are supplied for convenience and results are easy to read with. Mohan A, Saxena HM, Malhotra P. A comparison of titers of anti-Brucella antibodies of naturally infected and healthy vaccinated cattle by standard tube agglutination test, microtiter plate agglutination test, indirect hemagglutination assay, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Vet World. 2016;9(7):717-22

MycoplasmaAgglutination Assays | MicrobiologyTrypanosomiasis

The antiglobulin test is a method of demonstrating the presence of antibody or complement bound to red blood cell (RBC) membranes by the use of anti-human globulin to form a visible agglutination reaction. The IAT tests for antibodies circulating in the patient's plasma, while the DAT tests for antibodies or complement bound directly to the. Similarly, a slide agglutination test cannot reliably distinguish between agglutination and severe rouleaux formation. The best way to distinguish between these two phenomena (with important consequence for diagnosis and patient care) is to perform a saline dilution test, which is also called a saline dispersion test Saline Test. This test confirms the presence of agglutination by mixing a drop of uncoagulated blood with a (larger) drop of saline solution. The mixture is then placed on a slide with a coverslip and observed under the microscope. In the presence of agglutination, the red blood cells will remain clumped: this indicates a positive test The key difference between precipitation and agglutination reactions is that the antigens are soluble in case of precipitation while they are insoluble in agglutination.. Treatment of infectious diseases is dependent upon their correct diagnosis. Antigen-antibody reactions are techniques in which we measure antigens and antibodies. Among these antigen-antibody reactions, serological reactions. screening. The most commonly used tests are the rapid serum agglutination (RSA), the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and HI tests. Another immunological detection method in use is the latex agglutination test, which is a simple macroagglutination test that combines sensitivity with low cost and ease of application in the fiel

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